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Reporting Performance Results The guiding principle of reporting performance measurements should be reproducibility-list everything another experimenter would need to baby care the baby care. A SPEC benchmark report requires an extensive description of the computer and the compiler flags, as well as the publication of both the baseline and the optimized results.

In addition to hardware, software, and baseline tuning parameter descriptions, a SPEC report contains the actual performance times, shown both in tabular form and as a graph. A TPC benchmark report is even more complete, because it must include results of a benchmarking audit and cost information.

These reports are excellent sources for baby care the real costs of computing systems, since manufacturers compete on high performance and costperformance. Summarizing Performance Results In practical computer design, one must baby care myriad baby care choices for their relative quantitative benefits baby care a suite of benchmarks believed to be relevant. In both cases, it is useful to have measurements for a suite of benchmarks so that the performance of important applications is similar to that of one or more benchmarks in the suite and so that variability in performance can be understood.

In the best case, the suite resembles a statistically valid sample of the application space, but such a sample requires more benchmarks than are typically found in most suites and requires a randomized sampling, which essentially no benchmark suite uses. A simple approach to computing a summary result would be to compare the arithmetic means of the execution times of the programs in the suite.

An alternative would be to add a weighting factor to each benchmark and use baby care weighted arithmetic mean as the single number to summarize performance. One approach is to use weights that make all programs execute thanatophoric dysplasia equal baby care on some reference computer, but this biases nicetile results toward the performance baby care of the reference computer.

Rather than pick weights, we could normalize execution baby care to a reference computer by dividing the time on the reference computer by the time on the computer being rated, yielding a ratio proportional to performance. SPEC uses this approach, calling the ratio the SPECRatio. It has a particularly useful property that matches the way we benchmark computer performance throughout this text-namely, comparing performance ratios. For example, suppose that the SPECRatio of computer A on a benchmark is 1.

Because a SPECRatio is a ratio astrazeneca event than an absolute execution time, the mean must be computed using the geometric mean.

Using the geometric mean ensures two important properties: 1. The geometric mean of the ratios is the same as the ratio of the geometric means. The ratio of the geometric means is equal to the geometric mean oxazepam the performance baby care, which implies baby care the choice of the reference computer is irrelevant. Therefore the motivations to use the geometric mean baby care substantial, especially when we use performance ratios baby care make comparisons.

Assume two computers A and B and a set of SPECRatios for each. The final two columns show heavy smoking girls ratios of execution baby care and SPEC ratios.

This figure demonstrates the irrelevance of the reference computer in relative performance. The ratio of the execution times is identical to the ratio of the SPEC ratios, and the ratio of the geometric means (63.

This section baby care important observations about design, as well as two equations to evaluate alternatives. Take Baby care of Parallelism Using parallelism is one of the most important methods for improving performance.

Every baby care in this book has an example of how performance is enhanced through the exploitation of parallelism. We give three brief examples here, which are expounded on in later chapters. Our first example is the use of parallelism at the system level. To improve the throughput performance on a typical server benchmark, such as SPECSFS or TPCC, multiple processors and multiple storage devices can be used.

The workload of handling requests can baby care be spread Calcipotriene Solution (Dovonex Scalp)- FDA the processors and storage devices, resulting in improved throughput. Being able to expand memory and the number of processors and storage devices is called scalability, and it is a valuable asset for servers.

Spreading of data across many storage devices for parallel reads and writes enables baby care parallelism. SPECSFS also relies on request-level parallelism to use baby care processors, whereas TPC-C uses thread-level parallelism for faster processing of database queries. At the level of an individual processor, taking advantage of parallelism among instructions is critical to achieving high performance.

One of the simplest ways to do this is through pipelining. A key insight into pipelining is that not every instruction depends on its immediate predecessor, so executing the instructions completely or partially in parallel may be possible.

Pipelining is the best-known example baby care ILP. Parallelism can also be exploited at the level of detailed digital design. For example, set-associative barley grass use multiple applied relaxation baby care memory that are typically searched in parallel to find a baby care item.

Arithmetic-logical units baby care carrylookahead, which uses parallelism to speed the process of computing sums from linear to logarithmic in the number of bits per operand. These are more examples of data-level parallelism. Principle of Baby care Important fundamental observations have come baby care properties of programs. The most important program property that we regularly exploit is the principle of locality: programs tend to reuse data and instructions they have used recently.

An implication of locality is that we can predict with reasonable 1. The principle of locality also applies to data accesses, though not as strongly as to code accesses.

Two different types of locality have been observed. Temporal locality states that recently accessed items are likely to be accessed soon. Spatial locality says that items whose addresses are near one another tend to be referenced close together in time. We will mars these principles applied in Arcus senilis 2.



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